Electrochemical detection of a harmful graphene-based herbicide

Though glyphosate is a broadly used non-toxic herbicide, discipline detection is troublesome as a result of lack of moveable tools. Regardless of the presence of this herbicide in floor water, farmer urine and crop residues, quick and easy-to-use sensors are usually not at the moment out there, requiring samples to be transported to the laboratory.

​​​Analysis: A laser-induced graphene-based enzymatic biosensor for the electrochemical detection of the herbicide glyphosate. Picture credit score: FrankHH/

A paper lately printed within the journal International Challenges developed a platinum-decorated laser-induced graphene (LIG) biosensor with immobilized flavoenzyme glycine oxidase (GlyOx) that was used to detect the herbicide glyphosate as a result of it’s a substrate for GlyOx. Thus, this graphene biosensor offered the idea for enzyme attachment.

The outcomes confirmed that the graphene biosensor reveals a detection vary of 10 to 260 µmol with a restrict of detection (LOD) of three.03 µmol and a sensitivity of 0.991 nanoamps per micrometer. The graphene biosensor confirmed minimal impact from different pesticides and herbicides, together with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, atrazine, parathion-methyl, dicamba, and thiamethoxam.

As well as, the developed graphene biosensor has additionally been examined on crop residue liquids and complicated river water, confirming that the present platform is a selective glyphosate detection methodology for meals evaluation and herbicide mapping.

Graphene Biosensor for Glyphosate Herbicide Detection

Glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine, is a broad spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant. Regardless of the non-toxicity of this herbicide to people and animals, its entry into floor water and underground accumulation after heavy rains raises points affecting the atmosphere and human well being. Publicity to the herbicide glyphosate can result in quite a lot of well being hazards, together with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, coronary heart illness, Parkinson’s illness, and infertility in ladies.

The present glyphosate detection methodology contains laboratory strategies akin to mass spectroscopy and liquid/gasoline chromatography, that are costly tools with complicated protocols and require samples to be transported to the laboratory. Due to this fact, there’s a want for a cheap discipline sensor to beat the disadvantages of transporting samples to the laboratory.

Though the sensors embody field-effect transistors (FETs) and chemiluminescence for monitoring glyphosate herbicides outdoors of the lab, these sensors require clear room circumstances, making them unsuitable for discipline use.

Detection of glyphosate herbicide based mostly on electrochemical sensing is a value efficient and discipline relevant methodology that facilitates monitoring and mapping of contamination by this herbicide over massive discipline areas. These electrochemical sensors detect herbicide even in turbid samples and supply a digital readout of goal marker focus.

Carbon-based biomaterials akin to graphene biosensors are cheap supplies with promising electrical properties, excessive particular floor space/porosity, and are appropriate for environmental sensing within the discipline. LIG’s graphene biosensors incorporate a laser engraving course of that eliminates the necessity for graphene synthesis, printing, answer inks, and post-print annealing.

For pesticides, graphene biosensors have beforehand been used to detect neonicotinoids, which have been then coupled to horseradish peroxidase to detect organophosphate hydrolase, atrazine, and acetylcholinesterase. Thus, graphene biosensors are viable sensors for pesticides.

Graphene Enzymatic Laser Biosensor for Glyphosate Herbicide Detection

Within the current examine, LIG, a graphene biosensor, was used to detect the herbicide glyphosate. Platinum (Pt) nanoparticles beautified the LIG chain and improved its electrochemical reactivity. Furthermore, its biofunctionalization with the GlyOx enzyme facilitated the selective monitoring of the glyphosate herbicide. Thus, a Pt-GlyOx-LIG sensor was developed displaying a linear glyphosate sensitivity vary of 10 to 260 micromoles with a response time of 150 seconds, a sensitivity of 0.991 nanoamps per micrometer, and a detection restrict of three.03 micromoles.

The developed graphene biosensor confirmed minimal interference because of broadly used neonicotinoids, organophosphates and herbicides. As well as, restoration checks in complicated liquids have been carried out to substantiate the suitability of this graphene biosensor within the discipline. Right here, the sensor was uncovered to soy and spiked corn residues, in addition to river water samples taken from the South Skunk River in Iowa.

The outcomes confirmed a barely larger restoration of soybean and corn residues related to the oxidation of the native glycine composition in every crop. Due to this fact, it has been demonstrated that this cost-effective graphene biosensor can be utilized on a big scale to watch and map glyphosate herbicides in agricultural watersheds.


In conclusion, the current work demonstrated the usage of GlyOx and a laser-induced graphene biosensor to detect the herbicide glyphosate. This methodology included the event of Pt-decorated LIG sensors, displaying the scalability of this fabrication methodology to stop graphene synthesis, delamination, thermal annealing, and ink preparation.

Wonderful electrical properties, massive electrochemical floor space, electrocatalytic websites, and LIG purposeful teams contributed to the biosensor properties of the developed graphene biosensors. The Pt-GlyOx-LIG sensor confirmed a detection vary of 10 to 260 µmol with a response time of 150 seconds and a LOD of three.03 µmol. As well as, this graphene biosensor confirmed minimal interplay with different pesticides and herbicides as a result of presence of the GlyOx enzyme.


Johnson, Z.T., Jared, N., Peterson, J.Ok., Lee, J., Smith, E.A., Wolper, S.A., Hu (2022). Enzymatic laser-induced graphene biosensor for electrochemical detection of glyphosate herbicide. International Challenges.

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